Computer Hardware:
     • Tools, Static & Cleaning
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     • Building a Computer
     • Overclocking

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     • Windows 10

Internet & Network:
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Computer Peripherals:
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Computer Security:
     • Anti-virus
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Common PC Problems:
     • Slow Computer
     • Hardware Failure
     • Software Failure
     • Printing Problems

     • Windows Shortcuts
     • Glossary of Terms
     • HTML Colour Picker
     • Number Base Converter

CPU Technologies

The CPU (Central Processing Unit) contains certain components that enables it to function correctly. Firstly, there has to be an I/O (Input/Output) component to enable it to communicate with other parts of a computer system such as the system memory (RAM). It also contains the Control Unit which prepares the data before sending it to the ALU (Arithmatic Logic Unit). The ALU performs arithmatic and logical operations on the data and uses Registers as temporary storage areas while doing so. The Cache is an area of very fast memory on the CPU which is used for storing frequently used data rather than having to access it from the slower system memory (RAM). Once the ALU has performed its operations on the data then it is sent back (via the I/O) to the system memory (RAM) or whichever computer component requested the new information.

Central Processing Unit Components

Central Proccessing Unit Components.

Below are various technologies used by a modern CPU:

In order for a modern computer operating system to multi-task it will only send parts of a computer program (called threads) to be executed by the Central processing Unit allowing it to run several programs at the same time. Hyperthreading allows the CPU to execute two or more threads at the same time which significantly speeds up the computer.

A multi-core processor contains two or more processors (called Cores) on a single chip. Each core may share the onboard cache and will share the CPU bus interfaces. Dual core and Quad core processors are common today.

Older CPUs would operate at a constant high speed regardless of whether it was running complex programs or just idle. This was a problem for laptops in particular because of the need to conserve battery life. CPUs that employ throttling are able to slow the processor workload to conserve power and keep the processor cool and can speed the processor up only when needed.

Clock rate:
Clock rate refers to the speed of a Central Processing Unit measured in Megahertz (MHz) or Gigahertz (GHz). A CPU has a fixed number of clock cycles to execute each instruction. The faster the Clock Rate then the faster the CPU can execute instructions.

Overclocking is a way to get the CPU to operate at a faster clock rate or clock frequency to increase the speed and performance of a computer. This is done by either increasing the CPU multiplier (if it is not locked) or by increasing the FSB (Front Side Bus) or Base Clock speed. Overclocking can make a computer unstable as the CPU becomes overheated or insufficient voltage settings due to the increased clock speed.

MMX (Matrix Math Extensions) gives a CPU extra math instructions so that it can perform floating-point maths easier.

SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) and its successors introduced many more maths extensions to increase CPU performance.

1. CPU 2. Types of CPU 3. CPU Upgrade
4. CPU Speeds 5. CPU Technologies